A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities:

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The end user web browsers The end user downloaders There are ideally many end users for a single file. To start serving, a host goes through the following steps: Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already.

Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already. Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo. Start a downloader which already has the complete file the ‘origin’. To start downloading, a user does the following: Install BitTorrent or have done so already. Surf the web. Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume.

Wait for download to complete. Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. For example 4: Integers are represented by an ‘i’ followed by the number in base 10 followed by an ‘e’. For example i3e corresponds to 3 and i-3e corresponds to Integers have no size limitation.

All encodings with a leading zero, such as i03e, are invalid, other than i0e, which of course corresponds to 0. Lists are encoded as an ‘l’ followed by their elements also bencoded followed by an ‘e’. For example l4: Dictionaries are encoded as a ‘d’ followed by a list of alternating keys and their corresponding values followed by an ‘e’.

For example, d3: Keys must be strings and appear in sorted order sorted as raw strings, not alphanumerics. All strings in a. It is purely advisory. For the purposes of transfer, files are split into fixed-size pieces which are all the same length except for possibly the last one which may be truncated. It is to be subdivided into strings of length 20, each of which is the SHA1 hash of the piece at the corresponding index.

There is also a key length or a key files, but not both or neither. If length is present then the download represents a single file, otherwise it represents a set of files which go in a directory structure. In the single file case, length maps to the length of the file in bytes. For the purposes of the other keys, the multi-file case is treated as only having a single file by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files list.

The files list is the value files maps to, and is a list of dictionaries containing the following keys: In the single file case, the name key is the name of a file, in the muliple file case, it’s the name of a directory. This value will almost certainly have to be escaped. Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the.

Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly. They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data. Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download. This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped. Generally used for the origin if it’s on the same machine as the tracker.

Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc. Note that this can’t be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there’s a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded. If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals. An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

No completed is sent if the file was complete when started. Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading. Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries. If a tracker response has a key failure reason, then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required. Otherwise, it must have two keys: Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers.

More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly. It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens. The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking. Interest state must be kept up to date at all times – whenever a downloader doesn’t have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked. Connections start out choked and not interested.

When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called ‘pipelining’. On the other side, requests which can’t be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens. The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages.

The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string ‘BitTorrent protocol’. The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other. All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly. Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don’t send the same value, they sever the connection. The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it’s in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses. If the receiving side’s peer id doesn’t match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection.

That’s it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages. Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored. Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected. The possible values are:

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The end user web browsers The end user downloaders There are ideally many end users for a single file. To start serving, a host goes through the following steps: Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already. Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already. Associate the extension.

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