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Decoy insertion[ edit ] Decoy insertion or content pollution is a method by which corrupted versions of a particular file are inserted into the network. This deters users from finding an uncorrupted version and also increases distribution of the corrupted file.

In order to entice users to download the decoys, malicious users may make the corrupted file available via high bandwidth connections.

There were known cases when a company had created a special version of a game and published it on file sharing services advertising it as cracked, having undocumented hidden functionality, making it impossible to win this variant of the game.

Index poisoning[ edit ] This method targets the index found in P2P file sharing systems. The index allows users to locate the IP addresses of desired content. Thus, this method of attack makes searching difficult for network users. The attacker inserts a large amount of invalid information into the index to prevent users from finding the correct resource.

Users will then waste time trying to establish a connection with bogus users thus increasing the average time it takes to download the file. Furthermore, the attacker does not have to transfer files nor respond to requests.

For this reason, index poisoning requires less effort than other methods of attack. MediaDefender has written their own program which directs users to non-existent locations via bogus search results.

As users typically select one of the top five search results only, this method requires users to persevere beyond their initial failed attempts to locate the desired file. Interdiction[ edit ] This method of attack prevents distributors from serving users and thus slows P2P file sharing. The protocol identifies a peer with its endpoint address while the file index format is changed to incorporate a digital signature.

A peer authentication protocol can then establish the legitimacy of a peer when she downloads and uploads files. Using identity based signatures, the system enables each peer to identify infringing users without the need for communication with a central authority.

The protocol then sends poisoned chunks to these detected users requesting a copyright protected file only. If all legitimate users simply deny download requests from known infringers, the latter can usually accumulate clean chunks from colluders paid peers who share content with others without authorization. However, this method of content poisoning forces illegitimate users to discard even clean chunks, prolonging their download time.

As the attacker replicates the whole network for the targeted peer, they can manipulate them in a number of ways. For example, the attacker can specify which search results are returned.

The attacker can also modify file comments. It also checks data randomly for any errors found in that. However, the attacker never provides any chunks authentic or otherwise to the peers. A common version of this attack is the “chatty peer” attack. The attacker establishes connection with targeted peers via the required handshake message, followed by a message advertising that they have a number of available chunks.

Not only does the attacker never provide any chunks, they also repeatedly resend the handshake and message. These attacks prevent downloads as, essentially, the peer wastes time dealing with the attacker, instead of downloading chunks from others. First, before injecting decoys, content providers have to normally monitor the BitTorrent network for signs that their content is being illegally shared this includes watching for variations of files and files in compressed formats.

This process can be expensive and time-consuming. As a result, most poisoning is only continued for the first few months following a leak or release. Instead, the aim of content providers is to make illegal downloads statistically less likely to be clean and complete, in the hope that users will be discouraged from illegally downloading copyright material. Content providers and copyright holders may decide that the financial outlay is not worth the end result of their efforts. Countermeasures[ edit ] The methods of attack described above are not particularly effective on their own, as for each measure effective countermeasures have evolved.

These measures must be combined in order to have a significant impact on illegal peer-to-peer filesharing using BitTorrent protocols and Torrent files. BitTorrent is highly resistant to content poisoning as opposed to index poisoning , as it is able to verify individual file chunks. Public torrent tracker sites have enabled the ability to report if a torrent has been poisoned or is fake or malicious in any way. Thus torrent files shared by public trackers can have similar levels of quality assurance as Private Tracker websites.

Tracker technology as well as BitTorrent client programs has improved over time, and many kinds of spoofing that were possible in the past are no longer possible. Public or Private tracker websites have selectively switched over to using HTTPS for the distribution of their web text and image content. By using HTTPS for the website content versus tracker communications many poisoning techniques are rendered impossible.

Legal issues[ edit ] In September , Altnet sued the Recording Industry Association of America , Overpeer, Loudeye, MediaSentry and others, claiming that their spoofing services violated Altnet’s patent for a file identification method called TrueNames. The investigation was declined by Finnish police, and later by the Finnish parliamentary ombudsman. In the USA in , Representative Howard Berman proposed the Peer To Peer Piracy Prevention Act, which would have granted immunity to copyright holders for taking steps to prevent the illegal distribution of their content i.

Although not targeted specifically at BitTorrent, Madonna’s American Life album was an early example of content poisoning. Before the release of the album, tracks that appeared to be of similar length and file size to the real album tracks were leaked by the singer’s record label. The tracks featured only a clip of Madonna saying “What the fuck do you think you’re doing?

Each file contained a short sample of the song, followed by a clip of a band member saying, “Although you thought you were downloading our new single, what you were actually downloading is an advertisement for our new album. MediaDefender was hired to poison torrents using decoy insertion. The Nopir-B worm, which originated in France, poses as a DVD copying program and deletes all the mp3 files on a user’s computer, regardless of whether or not they were legally obtained.

The Federal Communications Commission conducted public hearings in response to the allegations. Comcast argued that it was regulating network traffic to enable reasonable downloading times for the majority of users. Comcast complied with the order and appealed.

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Decoy insertion[ edit ] Decoy insertion or content pollution is a method by which corrupted versions of a particular file are inserted into the network. This deters users from finding an uncorrupted version and also increases distribution of the corrupted file. In order to entice users to download the decoys, malicious users may make the corrupted file available via high bandwidth connections. There were known cases when a company had created a special version of a game and published it on file sharing services advertising it as cracked, having undocumented hidden functionality, making it impossible to win this variant of the game.

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